DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS
TO REMEMBER THESE NAMES OF DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTICS HERE IS THE MNEMONICS.
Poolice (P) Commissioner(C) & Director (D) General’s (G) BLAST Query (Q) Derived (D) Nil (N)
No (N) More (M) New (N) —
P- Polypeptide C—Cephalosporin D—Diaminopyeidines G—Glycoprotein B—Betalactums
L—Lincosamides A—Amino glycosides S—Sulfonamides T—Tetracycline Q—Quinolones
D—Derivatives of Nicotinic acids N-Nicotinic acid N—Nitromidazole
M— Macrolides N—Nitrofurantoins.
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Heap bone or Innominate bone
It is an irregular bone. It is constricted in the middle and expanded above and below. Two heap bones uniting with sacrum and coccyx form the bony pelvis.
Differences between Male & Female Heap bone & pelvis.
1. Size;Shape & Formation
2. Shape of the cavity
3. Size and shape of sacrum
4. Diameter of acctabulum
5. Obturator foramen
6. Rideges on the bone
7. Pre-auricular sulcus
8. Distance between the public tubercle and acctabular margin
9. Crest at ischiopubic rami
10. Subpublic angle
11. Nature of the pelvic cavity
12. Pelvic measurement
13. Other measurements
14. Feature pertaining to the external genital organ
15. Obturator foramen
17. Greater sciatic notch
18. Ischial tubcrosity
19B. . Sacrum
21. Distance between the two public tubercle Male
Stout, broad and rough
Cavity hurt shape
Narrow and long
More than 5cm.
Not so Prominent
Less than the diameter of the acetabulum
Promiment and everted
The subpublic angle is smsller & varies from 580 to 600
The pelvic cavity is funnel shaped. Its outlet is much smaller than the inlet.
All diameters are comparatively smaller (inlet, outlet & pelvic cavity)
The acetabular diameter equals the distance between the acetabulum and symphisis pulvis.
The outer margin of the ischio pubic rami is everted and the area for the crus penis (anterior Surface of pubis) is wider.
Larger & Oval
Narrower and fish-hook in appearance
Tuberosity is inverted.
a) The auricular part of the bone is longer than its non-articular part
b) The auricular articular surface extents upto the 3rd sacral vertebra
c) Vertical diameter is greater than the maximum transverse diametre.
d) The ventral curvature is less cured or gradually curved. It is less concave.
The body and the crest of the pubic bone is less wide
Distance less Female
Light, smooth and delicate
Cavity round shape
Stout and wider
Less than 5 cm
Less prominent and inverted.
The subpubic angle is wider and various from 800 to 900
It is more or less tubular in character. Inlet and out let almost equal.
All diameters are comparatively larger
Distance between the autabulum and the symphisi pubis is one inch more than the acetabular diameter.
The margin of the ischio-pubic rami is less everted & the area for the crus clitoris (anterior Surface of pubis) is narrower.
Smaller and triangular
It is much wider.
It is everted.
a) The non- antiular part of the base is larger than its articular part.
b) The auricular articular surface extends up to the 2nd sacral vertebra or a little lower.
c) Vertical and transverse diameters are almost equal.
d) It is abruptly curved in the lower part. It is more concave.
The body and the pubic crest are wider.
Parts :—Heap bone has the following parts . A deep cup shaped hallow called the acetabulum on the lateral surface. Below and in front of the acetabulum lies the obturator foramen. This bone has the following there part (I) Ilium (II) Ischium (III) Pubis.