LIBRARY & INFORMATION SCIENCE

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June 26 is the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. Established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1987,
Today, there is an alarming new drug problem; demand has soared for substances not under international control. Therefore, the 2013 UNODC global awareness campaign “Make health your ‘new high’ in life, not drugs” aims to inform the public, and particularly young people, about the harmful effects of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Sold openly, including through the internet, these substances, which have not been tested for safety in humans, can be far more dangerous than traditional drugs.
Source: http://www.un.org/en/events/drugabuseday/2013/highinlife.shtml

A relevant article on drug abuse in India–
Drug Trafficking and Narco-terrorism as Security Threats: A Study of India’s North-east

Ningthoujam Koiremba Singh & William Nunes

From India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs
(Volume 69 Issue 1, March 2013)

DETERMINATION OF HEALTH SCIENCE LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES STANDARDS: A DISCUSSION.

DR. N.C.GHATAK, LIBRARIAN
College of Medicine & Sagore Dutta Hospital, 578, B T Road, Kolkata- 700058
WEST BENGAL
Email—ncghatak30@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: – Health science Library & Information services standard & the standard of the organization are discussed here in this paper. Maintaining standard through International standard norms, health science library services & its efficacy are increased. We must try to uplift the standard of health science library services as a whole, such as, infrastructure, professional status, document collection, standard uniformity & interoperability, sharing of digital information is the technical standard. HON CODE( Health On Net Code) is the pioneer in health science library & information service standard, uplifting its quality and authenticity. Unified Medical Language System provides health information through programmed tools, such as, Meta Thesaurus, Semantic network, Specialist Lexicon & Lexical programmes. Digital library standard depends upon the good use of MARC21 metadata about Functional Requirements of Bibliographical Records (FRBR) information item. Web author must follow MED-PICS to describe their websites with standard vocabulary. National Library of Medicine has created Integrated Academic Information Management Systems (IAMS). And Z39.50 is the Information Resource Retrieval Protocols. It supports information retrieval among different information system.
KEY WORDS: — HEALTH SCIENCE LIBRARY SERVICES, DIGITAL LIBRARY, INTRNET RESOURCES, INTERNATIONAL HEALTH SCIENCE LIBRARY SERVICE STANDARDS, MARC21, MED-PICS, HON CODE, MED-PICS.

INTRODUCTION—
Health science libraries and information services are important for the healthcare service provider, Doctors & other paramedical staff, Pharmacists, Nurses, Laboratory technicians etc. There is a lack of standard at the present health science library services, though some are fully equipped and providing best services & we should try to uplift standard as a whole. In the area of library services, standards determined as —

Quantity—Such as Infrastructure, Professional status of staff & Document collection. Standards like Uniformity, Interoperability, and Sharing of encoded textual information are treated as technical digital library standard. Explosion of digital document in various forms demanding for determining the standard. Metadata and digital formats need standard. Many publishers have developed a framework for consistency & interoperability for digital archival repository of electronic journals.
Other standards—Medical Library Association (MLA), USA has developed standards for the Health science libraries & updating it regularly.
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Health On Net Code (HON Code) — Pioneer in the field of Health information ethics. HON first introduced a code of conduct for medical & health websites .It is followed by 3000 websites worldwide.
In India—Medical Library Association of India, New Delhi formed a standard in the workshop at New Delhi in 1983, sponsored by The Medical Council of India. It is neither followed nor adopted in any health science library. It is now obsolete.
In digital age the most important point is skill for integration of information services are searching & filtering of information. It requires skill of Subject knowledge base of a Librarian & it is most important. With reference to this parameter, standards of Health science Library should be as follows:–
1. Health science library infrastructure standards. 2. Technical standards.3.Academic & Expertise development standards. 4. Digital Library standards.

Health science library infrastructure standards: –
This point stresses on qualification & status of medical librarian. Medical librarian must work independently as the head of the library. Hutchison et al (1981) pointed out.
The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH), USA, it places equal & specific emphasis on the ten following points—

1. Administration. 2. Qualification of the library staff. 3. Continuing education for the library staff. 4. Requirement for library advisory committee.5.Required library services. 6. Required library space. 7. Library Budget. 8. Library networking & consortium based library services. 9. Documentation of library policy. 10. Continuous evaluation of Health science library services. Most of these standards were pre digital era, so these are now backdated.
Medical Library Association (MLA), USA has updated the standards in 2002.

The MLA standards recommendations are as follows:–
1 ADMINISTRATION— The Health science library will serve independently to meet the information requirements of the organization. It will meet the Knowledge Based Information (KBI). The library must have its own budget. The librarian as the head of the library report to the senior management of the organization.

2. QUALIFICATION OF LIBRARY STAFF:–Professionally qualified librarian must direct the KBI systems & services. Staff strength will be as per need of the concern.
3. CONTINUING EDUCATION OF THE LIBRARY STAFF:- The library staff must take part in continuing education and gain the recent advanced knowledge.
4. LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMITTEE:- The Librarian as the key KBI professional of the library must work efficiently and actively and accept the recommendation of the library advisory committee and implement it as per need of the clients .
5.REQUIRED LIBRARY SERVICES:– Librarian must perform his duties as per knowledge base information & take care of patient care, patient educating services, patient safety needs and functions as per need of the patients .Educational functions of the institute & other appropriate functions as per need of the concern as and when required.
6 .LIBRARY SPACE :– To meet the need of the information the librarian asses the KBI needs and do accordingly, provide required library space to cope up with the needs of the clients with the resources, services to fulfill the proper needs.
7. LIBRARY BUDGET: — The library must have its required budget to fulfill the need of the clients promoting KBI services & resources from its planned library budget.
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8. LIBRARY NETWORK & CONSORTIUM: — To perform all the KBI services there must be networking of libraries & consortium to serve the clients effectively through this consortia in compliance with the applicable National, state, local & regional laws and regulations and it will provide information round the clock.

9.DOCUMENTATION OF THE LIBRARY POLICY :– The Health science library policy must be well documented .Following this policy the librarian will provide KBI to the clients as per demand & it will be available day and night.
10. CONTINUOUS EVALUATON OF LIBRARY SERVICES:- The Librarian must evaluate its services provided to the clients & update it to fulfill the shortcomings of Library services with its equipped Hardware & Software & other resources available.
To achieve excellent Health science library services, Medical libraries must understand and adopt the popular suitable technical standards relevant to the health science librarianship, updating its standards.
TECHNICAL STANDARDS:–
National Library of Medicine (NLM), USA has developed standards in all aspects of library services like acquisition, organization, abstracting and indexing. Notable technical standards are NLM Scheme of classification, Medical subject heading (MESH), & MEDLINE Databases, it is called as PUBMED. It is free of cost abstracts, articles, E-journals etc. The NLM has developed a tool named as UMLS.
It provides health information & public health data.
UNIFIED MEDICAL LANGUAGE SYSTEM (UMLS):– It provides published medical information. UMLS is providing medical information, create, process, retrieve, integrates and aggregate health data & information & informatics research.
There are three UMLS knowledge resources –A. Metathesaurus. B. Semantic Network. C. Specialist Lexicon. These facilitate the use of health information through programmed tools.
A.META THESAURUS – It is a multilingual multipurpose large vocabulary database. It contains biomedical & health information, their various names & relationship among them. It is built from different thesauri, classification code, terms used in patient care ,public health statistics , indexing & cataloguing biomedical literature, clinical health science research etc.
B.SEMANTIC NETWORK-Through it the ideas are classified to maintain UMLS Metathesaurus through necessary classification & arrangements of ideas by their correlation. At present there are135 SEMANTICS & 54 RELATIONSHIPS types related ideas exist.
C. SPECIALIST LEXICON & LEXICAL PROGRAMMES: — It is made from the biomedical terms & the English terms used by the general people. Through Natural Language Processing System (NLPS) the experts gather ideas & collect terms through this Specialist Lexicon & Lexical Programs.
INTIGRATED ACADEMIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (IAIMS):–
NLM has developed this system. It provides technology assisted learning centre, informatics program development, teleconferencing, voice mail, resource sharing etc.

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STANDARDS FOR ACADEMIC AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT:–
Academic standard is the most important to the medical librarian for its value added services to the clients for clinical research support to the health care community. Knowledge of the medical librarians about the content of resources and its dissemination to the doctors & others is very important. Use of Information technology to acquire, organize, disseminate information & evaluation of services, are the main work of the medical librarians. For achieving excellence in medical Librarianship, Research & Development work must be done in this area creating an apex body in Medical librarianship.
BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS FOR THE MEDICAL LIBRARIANS:–
Application of Information Technology has changed the role of the Medical Librarians & also the information searching process of the clients. Digital Library concentrates on the integration of Electronic Health Records, Medical Imaging, and Telemedicine. Medical librarian must know the Medical Informatics, various aspects of Hardware & Software, Networking of various libraries. Content analysis, indexing of digital resources must be known to the medical librarian.
DIGITAL LIBRARY STANDARDS:–
Digital library standard depends upon the organization of knowledge, storage and its dissemination with proper Meta data. There are many international standards for the digital libraries applications. These are MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue), Cataloguing rules & classification schemes.
Resource description formats: — There are many resource description standards –such as MARC 21 for descriptive metadata about information item. MARC-XML for MARC21 data in the XML structure. MODS (Metadata Object Description Standard)–
It is XML of selected metadata from existing MARC 21 records and original resource description for encoding finding aids.
Digital Library Standards:-METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standards):– Structure for encoding descriptive, administrative & structural metadata –www.loc.gov/mets . Core element sets—Basic metadata elements for digital objects & MIX- Metadata for Images in XML.
Information Resource Retrieval Protocols: — Z39.50 supports information retrieval among different information system. It helps in inter-operability of different records of MARC message exchange between server & client.. This protocol helps in information retrieval, sorting duplicate records & removes these from the records.
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STANDARDS FOR MEDICAL INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET:–
Everything is published on the Internet. So internet is now a garbage & information is sorted out of this Internet garbage & it takes time. The solution is recommended by the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, called PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection) http:/www.org/PICS. It applies labels to be applied to Internet content. It has developed a PICS-confirm rating vocabulary for the Medical information. It is called MED-PICS. It is expected that the web authors must use MED-PICS labels to describe their websites with standard vocabulary, to facilitate searching the webs.
CONCLUSION:–
Application of IT with the substantial, organized cooperative initiatives from the Librarians, Publishers, and Medical professionals working together will evolve a suitable standard. Library services are cooperative and contracted arrangements to provide information resources in any form Electronic or print form and it will be available round the clock and consortia based services will be able to provide value added services to the clients.

REFERENCES:–
1. Medical Library Association of India ( MLAI )-Application & operation standards for health science libraries in digital era : Proceedings of the National convention of MLAI, 7-9th November, 2005.Bangalore, National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences
(NIMHANS).
2 http://www.nimhans.kar.nic/mlai2005
3. http://www.org/pics
4. Paradise, Andrew (2004) – Why the Joint Commission Accreditation of health Organization should add new regulations regarding libraries. Journal of Medical Library Association, 92(2):166-168,April 2004.
5. Bhatt, M.K., Anand, S.K. & Dhir,S.C. Editors,-1983—Standards for Health Science Libraries in India. Medical Library association of India, sponsored by medical Council of India & National Medical Library, New Delhi, 28-30th October, 1983, New Delhi.
6. Hutchison. AP et al ( 1981 )—Proposed standards for professional health science library services in hospitals of New York State, Bulletin of Medical Library Association , 69(3) July, 1981.
7 .http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Conduct.html.

ALTMETRICS: THE NEW SUN FOR THE RESEARCH SCHOLARS
By- DR.N.C.GHATAK, Ex Librarian, Medical College, 88, college Street. Kolkata-700073
Email-ncghatak30@gmail.com Blog- http://www.ncghatakadoreslife.wordpress.com
ABSTRACT
There is a paradigm shift in Academic, Research & Publishing & other fields of social life. It is shifted to the Online & storing huge Knowledge Data base. Scholars are now measuring scholarly activities through online beyond previous formal citations. So gathering online information, its analysis & presenting data & sharing among the Research Scholars are known as ALTMETRICS. Data through Altmetrics are of various types, such as – PDF format download, VDO, Journals, Conference papers, & from different Social media objects etc. There are so many Altmetrics websites of different sources & various specialties’, such as – PLUM ANALYTICS includes data on interlibrary loan & other specific Bibliographical data. Altmetrics uses articles data, source data & component data also. It is very helpful for the research scholars & others to get information quickly through online resources.
KEY WORDS: — ALTMETRICS, SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES, PLUMANALYTICS, INTERNET RESOURCES.
DATA & CODE USAGE, SCIENTIFIC DATABASES, INTERNET PROTOCOLS, HYPERLINKS, CITATIONS, WEBSITES.
INTRODUCTION :–
Enormous increase of scientific output to the scholars is a flood of data. Traditional metrics mechanisms for Peer Review & JIF(Journal Impact Factor) is swamping for the flood of data. Increasing scholarly use of Web2.0 tools like Databib, CiteU ike, Research Gate, Mendeley, Zotero. Twitter, Facebook , YOU TUBE & different Blogs presenting the new opportunity to create new filters . Metrics which are based on diverse set of social sources can produce broader, richer & timely assessments of current potential scholarly impact For these reasons many authors have started to call for investigation of these metrics under the banner of “Altmatrics’’
WHAT IS ALTMETRICS?—
ALTMETRICS means alternative measuring. Specifically it is the creation & study of new metrics based on Webs & Social networking sites for analyzing & measuring scholarships’ to serve the derived information for the need of the Library clients at the time of their need.
ONLINE SHIFT: — There is a paradigm shift in Academic, Research & Publishing & other fields of social life. It is shifted to the Online & storing huge Knowledge Data base. For this reason the Scholars are now measuring scholarly activities through online beyond previous formal citations.

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So gathering online information, its analysis & presenting data & sharing among the Research Scholars are known as ALTMETRICS.
Data through Altmetrics are of various types, such as – PDF format download, VDO from YOUTUBE, From Journals, Conference papers, & from different Social media objects etc. There are so many Altmetrics websites of different sources & various specialties’, such as – PLUM ANALYTICS includes data on interlibrary loan & other specific Bibliographical data.
Altmetrics uses articles data, source data & component data also. Examples are given below: —
A – Scholarly data usage. B – Webpage views & PDF downloads. C – Scholarly References
D – Book marking, Sharing & Recommending from Cite You Like, Databib, Zotero, Mendley, Research Gate etc.
E- Mass Media References – Hindu, Times of India, BBC, CNN, MEDLINE & so many.
F- Social Media mentions – You Tube, Twitter, Face Book, LinkedIn, Delicious , Elgg, & so many.
G- Data & Code Usage – Dryad, Git Hub etc.
H- Component Mention — Slide shares & Figure shares etc.
AIM OF ALTMETRICS:–
It aims to provide a forum for the dissemination of Innovative Research on the following metrics such as
 Validated new metrics based on social media.
 Tracking Science communication media on the web.
 Relation between Traditional metrics & Altmetrics including validation & correlation.
 The relationship between Peer Review & Altmetrica.
 Evaluated tools for gathering , analyzing & disseminating Altmetrics
Various Altmetrics websites & tools have different sources & specialties’ Plum Analytics includes data on
Interlibrary loan, & other book related & library specific data.
Altmetrics Donut is a known site to the Research Scholars.

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WHAT ALTMETRICS ACTUALLY DO? :–
® Measures collection performances, Impact story, & it allow users to create collections of documents using Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)
® Measuring institutional Repositories performances, such as Impact story allow users to collect data from WebPages & building a collection documents from the Institutional repositories.
® It helps Librarians to monitor Institutional performances.
® Comparing relative performance of the Institutions & the Researchers — It helps to compare the social usage of the output of both the Institution & the Researcher. It allows comparison of articles by Open repository such as ORCID (Open Researcher & Contributors’ ID Repository).
® Creating Social Impact Statement— Social Impact of Research may be assessed by ALTMETRICS. In UK there is a change to fund Infrastructure of research Institute. It is mandatory for social impact assessment of the research concern for funding by the Government. The wider vision of ALTMETRICS can provide a good picture of the social impact of research of the Institute. The new metrics allow Academics to tell stories beyond the citations. As for example it is the evidence of work’s geographic reach & its impact in wider population of the world.
® Altmetrics is commercial operation & it has some free services also. Impact story services are all free service. Permission is not a need to view document’s Almetrics.
LIBRARIANS’ ROLE: —
Librarians’ have a great role to promote & encourage research of the Research Scholars & Academics by disseminating the necessary information for research activities. Librarian can take a very important role of the institution’s research growth.
Tell the Research Scholars about this new field & increase your impact on the society as a whole.
So Librarian is the BEACON to the Research Scholars.
IMPORTANT ROLE OF THE LIBRARIAN IN VARIOUS ASPECTS: —
Librarian is a Knowledge manager—
 From the Desktop & interconnected Smart Mobile Phone devices Information reach to the Library clients.
 Information goes to the clients through Librarian by Library holdings of both online & offline journals & books, Web articles, Social media contents etc.
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 Dissemination of information produced by the Internet users.
Librarian is an EDUCATOR —
 Using social media tools empowering library users.
 Scattering knowledge with information skill to the clients.
 Using library websites to cater knowledge to the users.
Librarian is a CONNECTOR –
© Regularly posting information for the specific users.
© Disseminating timely information when they demand according to their need.
© Connecting with the media tools applications for the information services.
© In person delivering information to the clients.
© Within a complex information landscape interlinked with the cloud computing.
Librarian is a facilitator & entrepreneur —
© My Profile & application tools extends the Library’s value.
© Library patrons are served in real time through social media information.
© From the Library backend Librarian creates information & facilitate the information to the clients.
© Creating & marketing information through digital media & creating spaces for information.
© Enhancing social media culture & their collaborative tools.
LIBRARIAN is a Lighthouse —
© Attracting library users to the Library
© Librarian evaluating the social needs & reviewing their needs.
© Inspiring & involving the library users to receive the library activities’ benefits.
© Searching resources of information & financial supports to enrich the library services.
© LIBRARIAN blowing light through social media.
LIBRARIAN is ready for your services. Power of the social Librarian cannot be ignored.
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References :—–
(1) A good introduction to the ambitions of altmetrics may be found at altmetrics.org/manifesto
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(3) Priem, J., Piwowar, H.A., Hemminger, B.H. (2011) “Altmetrics in the wild: An exploratory study of impact metrics based on social media (presentation)”. Available at: http://jasonpriem.org/self-archived/PLoS-altmetrics-sigmetrics11-abstract.pdf
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ELECTRONIC AGE, CONSORTIA & DETERMINATION OF HEALTH SCIENCE LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES STANDARDS.
DR. N.C.GHATAK, LIBRARIAN
INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY, KALYANI, NADIA
WEST BENGAL- 741235
Email—ncghatak30@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT:- Standards for the organization & dissemination of Health science Library & Information services in digital era is discussed. Maintaining standards & through consortia based library services its efficacy is increased which is stated here.
INTRODUCTION
Health science libraries and information services are important for the healthcare service provider, Doctors & other paramedical staff, Pharmacists, Nurses, Laboratory technicians etc. There is a lack of standard at the present health science library services, though some are fully equipped and providing best services & we should try to uplift standard as a whole. In the area of library services, standards determined as
Quantity– like Infrastructure, Professional status of staff & Document collection. Standards like Uniformity, Interoperability, and Sharing of encoded textual information are treated as technical digital library standard. Explosion of digital document in various forms demanding for determining the standard. Metadata and digital formats need standard. Many publishers have developed a framework for consistency & interoperability for digital archival repository of electronic journals.
Other standards—Medical Library Association (MLA), USA has developed standards for the Health science libraries & updating it regularly.
Health On Net Code (HON Code) — Pioneer in the field of Health information ethics. HON first introduced a code of conduct for medical & health websites .It is followed by 3000 websites worldwide.
In India—Medical Library Association of India, New Delhi formed a standard in the workshop at New Delhi in 1983, sponsored by The Medical Council of India. It is neither followed nor adopted in any health science library. It is now obsolete.
In digital age the most important point is skill for integration of information services are searching & filtering of information. It requires skill of Subject knowledge base of a Librarian & it is most important. With reference to this parameter, standards of Health science Library should be as follows:–
1. Health science library infrastructure standards. 2. Technical standards.3.Academic & Expertise development standards. 4. Digital Library standards.
Health science library infrastructure standards: –
This point stresses on qualification & status of medical librarian. Medical librarian must work independently as the head of the library. Hutchison et al (1981) pointed out,
2.
The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH), USA, it places equal & specific emphasis on the ten following points—
1. Administration. 2. Qualification of the library staff. 3. Continuing education for the library staff. 4. Requirement for library advisory committee.5.Required library services. 6. Required library space. 7. Library Budget. 8. Library networking & consortium based library services. 9. Documentation of library policy. 10. Continuous evaluation of Health science library services. Most of these standards were pre digital era, so these are now backdated.
Medical Library Association (MLA), USA has updated the standards in 2002.
The MLA standards recommendations are as follows:–
1 ADMINISTRATION— The Health science library will serve independently to meet the information requirements of the organization. It will meet the Knowledge Based Information (KBI). The library must have its own budget. The librarian as the head of the library report to the senior management of the organization.
2. QUALIFICATION OF LIBRARY STAFF:–Professionally qualified librarian must direct the KBI systems & services. Staff strength will be as per need of the concern.
3. CONTINUING EDUCATION OF THE LIBRARY STAFF:- The library staff must take part in continuing education and gain the recent advanced knowledge.
4. LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMITTEE:- The Librarian as the key KBI professional of the library must work efficiently and actively and accept the recommendation of the library advisory committee and implement it as per need of the clients .
5.REQUIRED LIBRARY SERVICES:– Librarian must perform his duties as per knowledge base information & take care of patient care, patient educating services, patient safety needs and functions as per need of the patients .Educational functions of the institute & other appropriate functions as per need of the concern as and when required.
6 .LIBRARY SPACE :– To meet the need of the information the librarian asses the KBI needs and do accordingly, provide required library space to cope up with the needs of the clients with the resources, services to fulfill the proper needs.
7. LIBRARY BUDGET: — The library must have its required budget to fulfill the need of the clients promoting KBI services & resources from its planned library budget.
8.LIBRARY NETWORK & CONSORTIUM :– To perform all the KBI services there must be networking of libraries & consortium to serve the clients effectively through this consortia in compliance with the applicable federal, state, local & regional laws and regulations and it will provide information round the clock 9.DOCUMENTATION OF THE LIBRARY POLICY :– The Health science library policy must be well documented .Following this policy the librarian will provide KBI to the clients as per demand & it will be available day and night. 10.CONTINUOUS EVALUATON OF LIBRARY SERVICES:- The Librarian must evaluate its services provided to the clients & update it to fulfill the shortcomings of
3.
Library services with its equipped Hardware & Software & other resources available.
To achieve excellent Health science library services, Medical libraries must understand and adopt the popular suitable technical standards relevant to the health science librarianship, updating its standards.
TECHNICAL STANDARDS:–
National Library of Medicine (NLM), USA has developed standards in all aspects of library services like acquisition, organization, abstracting and indexing. Notable technical standards are NLM Scheme of classification, Medical subject heading (MESH), & MEDLINE Databases, it is called as PUBMED. It is free of cost abstracts, articles, E-journals etc. The NLM has developed a tool named as UMLS.
It provides health information & public health data.
UNIFIED MEDICAL LANGUAGE SYSTEM (UMLS):– It provides published medical information. UMLS is providing medical information, create, process, retrieve, integrate and aggregate health data & information & informatics research.
There are three UMLS knowledge resources –A. Metathesaurus. B. Semantic Network. C. Specialist Lexicon. These facilitate the use of health information through programmed tools.
A.META THESAURUS – It is a multilingual multipurpose large vocabulary database. It contains biomedical & health information, their various names & relationship among them .It is built from different thesauri, classification code, terms used in patient care ,public health statistics , indexing & cataloguing biomedical literature, clinical health science research etc.
B.SEMANTIC NETWORK-Through it the ideas are classified to maintain UMLS Metathesaurus through necessary classification & arrangements of ideas by their correlation. At present there are135 SEMANTICS & 54 RELATIONSHIPS types related ideas exist.
C. SPECIALIST LEXICON & LEXICAL PROGRAMMES: — It is made from the biomedical terms & the English terms used by the general people. Through Natural Language Processing System (NLPS) the experts gather ideas & collect terms through this Specialist Lexicon & Lexical Programs.
INTIGRATED ACADEMIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (IAIMS):–
NLM has developed this system. It provides technology assisted learning centre, informatics program development, teleconferencing, voice mail, resource sharing etc.
4.
STANDARDS FOR ACADEMIC AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT:–
Academic standard is the most important to the medical librarian for its value added services to the clients for clinical research support to the health care community. Knowledge of the medical librarians about the content of resources and its dissemination
to the doctors & others is very important. Use of Information technology to acquire, organize, disseminate information & evaluation of services, are the main work of the medical librarians. For achieving excellence in medical Librarianship, Research & Development work must be done in this area creating an apex body in Medical librarianship.
BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS FOR THE MEDICAL LIBRARIANS:–
Application of Information Technology has changed the role of the Medical Librarians & also the information searching process of the clients. Digital Library concentrates on the integration of Electronic Health Records, Medical Imaging, and Telemedicine. Medical librarian must know the Medical Informatics, various aspects of Hardware & Software, Networking of various libraries. Content analysis, indexing of digital resources must be known to the medical librarian.
DIGITAL LIBRARY STANDARDS:–
Digital library standard depends upon the organization of knowledge, storage and its dissemination with proper Meta data. There are many international standards for the digital libraries applications. These are MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue), Cataloguing rules & classification schemes.
Resource description formats: — There are many resource description standards –such as MARC 21 for descriptive metadata about information item. MARC-XML for MARC21 data in the XML structure. MODS (Metadata Object Description Standard)
It is XML of selected metadata from existing MARC 21 records and original resource description for encoding finding aids.
Digital Library Standards:-METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standards):– Structure for encoding descriptive, administrative & structural metadata –www.loc.gov/mets . Core element sets—Basic metadata elements for digital objects & MIX- Metadata for Images in XML.
Information Resource Retrieval Protocols:– Z39.50 supports information retrieval among different information system. It helps in inter-operability of different records
of MARC message exchange between server & client.. This protocol helps in information retrieval, sorting duplicate records & removes these from the records.
5.
STANDARDS FOR MEDICAL INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET:–
Everything is published on the Internet. So internet is now a garbage & information is sorted out of this Internet garbage & it takes time.. The solution is recommended by the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, called PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection) http:/www.org/PICS. It applies labels to be applied to Internet content. It has developed a
PICS-confirm rating vocabulary for the Medical information. It is called MED-PICS. It is expected that the web authors must use Med-PICS labels to describe their websites with standard vocabulary, to facilitate searching the webs.
CONCLUSION:–
Application of IT with the substantial, organized cooperative initiatives from the Librarians, Publishers, and Medical professionals working together will evolve a suitable standard. Library services are cooperative and contracted arrangements to provide information resources in any form Electronic or print form and it will be available round the clock and consortia based services will be able to provide value added services to the clients.
REFERENCES:–
1. Medical Library Association of India ( MLAI )-Application & operation standards for health science libraries in digital era : Proceedings of the National convention of MLAI,
7-9th November, 2005.Bangalore, National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences
(NIMHANS).
2 http://www.nimhans.kar.nic/mlai2005
3. http://www.org/pics
4. Paradise, Andrew (2004) – Why the Joint Commission Accreditation of health Organization should add new regulations regarding libraries. Journal of Medical Library Association, 92(2):166-168,April 2004.
5. Bhatt, M.K., Anand, S.K. & Dhir,S.C. Editors,-1983—Standards for Health Science Libraries in India. Medical Library association of India, sponsored by medical Council of India & National Medical Library, New Delhi, 28-30th October, 1983, New Delhi.
6. Hutchison. AP et al ( 1981 )—Proposed standards for professional health science library services in hospitals of New York State, Bulletin of Medical Library Association , 69(3) July, 1981.
7 .http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Conduct.html.
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